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How to use nonces to prevent replay attacks while enabling concurrent requests?

Nonces are often used to prevent replay attacks in networks. Because they are a one time use, any attacker replaying a request would be stopped because the nonce would be invalid.

However using nonces forces the serialisation of requests. Most web APIs are made to be usable concurrently.

Are there solutions that enable the usage of nonces and still allow concurrent requests?

I know that TLS is usually recommended so that replay attacks don’t happen, so nonces aren’t used. But I’m referring to situations where nonces still are used regardless of TLS.

One idea I had was to share a seed during an initial key exchange and that shared seed is used to generate nonces deterministically in lockstep between client and server. But I realised concurrent messages/requests may arrive at the server out of order.

Ethereum Plugs 11-Week Bleed, why $1,500 May Be On The Horizon

Ethereum has been closing red week after red week for the past 11 weeks. It is the longest red streak that has been recorded in the history of the cryptocurrency, hence, it carried significant implications for the digital asset. Through the decline, it has been one of the worst-hit coins, performing poorly compared to the::Listen

Ethereum has been closing red week after red week for the past 11 weeks. It is the longest red streak that has been recorded in the history of the cryptocurrency, hence, it carried significant implications for the digital asset. Through the decline, it has been one of the worst-hit coins, performing poorly compared to the other cryptocurrencies at this time. However, the digital asset has now closed its first weekly green candle in three months and things are looking up.

Better Days Ahead

With this recovery has come a renewed interest in the digital asset. Coupled with the fact that the digital asset is now trading above its 50-day moving average, it has now solidified a bull trend for the short term. The activity on the network, though reduced, remains high enough to strike renewed faith in the heart of investors. 

Related Reading | Market Wallows In Extreme Fear As Bitcoin Struggles To Hold $20,000

However, there are still things that threaten the price of the cryptocurrency going on another bull rally. The Celsius debacle had been one of the major reasons behind the drawdown below $1,000 and remains a very real threat. The lending protocol which has found itself in a tight spot due to some bad trades remains at risk of being liquidated, and rumors continue to circulate that Celsius is planning to file for bankruptcy, which would mean users would not be able to get their tokens back.

ETH price sees first green weekly close after three months | Source: ETHUSD on TradingView.com

Additionally, Three Arrows Capital’s insolvency had hit the market hard but there is still more to come. This is because it is the leading crypto fund and as such had its hand in a large number of projects in the space, especially DeFi, the majority of which would be significantly affected by the 3AC insolvency.

Ethereum To $1,500

Presently, the price of the digital asset is still trailing $1,200 but there are some things rumored in the market that will likely promote a pump in price. One of these is FTX’s supposed acquisition of the trading platform, Robinhood.

Now, Robinhood is one of the most popular platforms when it comes to trading crypto. However, it has drawn the ire of the community in the past due to its practices. As such, if it were to be acquired by FTX, a trusted crypto exchange, it would mean that FTX would be bringing Robinhood’s massive user base of more than 22 million to the broader crypto community.

Related Reading | Ethereum Fees Touch Monthly Lows As Transaction Volumes Plummet

There is nothing definite regarding the acquisition yet but the sentiment among investors regarding it has been good so far. A rally resulting from such an acquisition could easily see Ethereum grow more than 20% and that would put the digital asset above the $1,500 level once more.

ETH is trading at $1,221 at the time of this wring. It remains the second-largest cryptocurrency in the space with a market cap of $148 billion.

Featured image from CoinMarketCap, chart from TradingView.com

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How to use nonces to prevent replay attacks while enabling concurrent requests?

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