CRYPTO NEWS

Testing of PQC NIST round3 submissions

I am new to this field and have some concerns regarding PQC;

How does NIST do a comparison that a particular algorithm is efficient and its security can not be broken by future quantum attacks? I am enthusiastic to understand the criteria.

Had NIST tried to break the Encryption algorithm by applying Shor’s algorithm using the available IBM’s quantum computer?

What is the NIST’s criteria to check the PQC algorithms submission?

UTXO vs Account scalability paradigms and Merkle proof of ownership

From Ethereum’s design rationale: Potential scalability paradigms: UTXOs are more theoretically compatible with certain kinds of scalability paradigms, as we can rely on only the owner of some coins maintaining a Merkle proof of ownership, and even if everyone including the owner decides to forget that data then only the owner is harmed. In an::Listen

From Ethereum’s design rationale:

Potential scalability paradigms: UTXOs are more theoretically compatible with certain kinds of scalability paradigms, as we can rely on only the owner of some coins maintaining a Merkle proof of ownership, and even if everyone including the owner decides to forget that data then only the owner is harmed. In an account paradigm, everyone losing the portion of a Merkle tree corresponding to an account would make it impossible to process messages that affect that account at all in any way, including sending to it. However, non-UTXO-dependent scalability paradigms do exist.

I don’t really understand the difference. In Bitcoin’s UTXO paradigm, the owner of some coins must hold a private key for the destination address of an UXTO to prove ownership of the coins. If the key is lost, the coins are lost. As I understand, the same would happen in the account paradigm, except the owner would lose an account balance instead of an unspent transaction. What else would be lost in an account paradigm? How is that related to scalability?

Also, I understand what Merkle trees are and how they are used for storing transactions but what is a "Merkle proof of ownership"?

Thanks in advance.

Testing of PQC NIST round3 submissions

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