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Why is the block header 80 bytes, not 128 bytes (= two SHA-256 blocks)?

According to the Bitcoin Developer Reference, the block header is 80 bytes total:

BYTES   NAME 4       version 32      previous block header hash 32      merkle root hash 4       time 4       nonce 

As I understand it, the midstate (1st SHA block) contains 64 bytes of the block header (which fields in particular I do not know, but I do know it doesn’t contain the nonce), and the 2nd SHA block contains the rest, only 80-64 = 16 bytes. Does this mean the 2nd SHA block is padded with 64 – 16 = 48 bytes? If so, why not make the nonce field, for example, 48 – 4 = 42 bytes larger (i.e., 52 bytes instead of 4 bytes)?

That way, extranonce doesn’t have to be in the generation transaction, thereby speeding up hashing, no?

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Why is the block header 80 bytes, not 128 bytes (= two SHA-256 blocks)?

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